Academy, Technology

What are CBDCs? – Central Bank Digital Currency

What are CBDCs? - Central Bank Digital Currency

In today’s increasingly digital world, how we handle money is fast shifting. The rise of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) is one notable development. CBDCs are digital currencies produced by central banks and linked to their respective country’s official currency. This post will delve into cryptocurrencies and the concept of CBDCs. We shall investigate their prospective benefits as well as their existing global situation.

What are CBDCs?

CBDCs, also known as central bank digital currencies, are digital equivalents of government-issued currencies such as the US dollar and the Euro. They are similar to physical cash, except instead of being physical money, they exist in digital form. This is similar to how cryptocurrencies work, and many people believe that CBCDCs offer the ideal combination of blockchain technology and reliable fiat money. 

CBDCs, unlike cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, are not decentralized and are not entirely based on blockchain technology. They are instead centralized and under the jurisdiction of central banks, making them more secure and stable. The central bank simply has complete control over issuance and distribution.

CBDCs seek to provide a digital substitute for traditional cash transactions. They can be used for ordinary purchases, internet transactions, and peer-to-peer transfers in the same way that fiat money can. The distinction is that CBDCs are stored in digital wallets and can only be accessed via an electronic device. This makes them much more secure against theft, and many people believe it is the best blend of crypto and fiat money.

The Future of Traditional Finance. Source: Digital Asset

The Types of CBDCs:

CBDCs do not have a one-size-fits-all approach, and several models are being studied. Here are some examples of the numerous types:

Account-Based Model

The account-based model is one of the options that central banks are considering for adopting CBDCs. Individuals and businesses would have direct deposit accounts with the central bank under this concept. This is comparable to how they manage their business bank accounts.

Individuals would have a digital wallet or profile directly linked to the central bank under the account-based approach. This enables the storage and exchange of CBDCs. Furthermore, individuals would have a direct link with the central bank for their financial transactions, eliminating the necessity for regular commercial banks.

One of the primary benefits of this paradigm is the potential for increased security. Because the accounts are held directly with the central bank, the central bank records and monitors the transactions. This can give individuals more trust and confidence in the security of their funds and transactions.

Another advantage of this paradigm is enhanced financial inclusion. Individuals who do not have access to standard banking services can open a direct account with the bank using this technique. This can be highly beneficial in locations where more financial infrastructure is needed. This is due to the fact that it allows individuals to store and transact digitally without relying on commercial institutions.

However, this model has its own set of difficulties. One of these is that people must trust the bank with their financial transactions and data. There have recently been a number of issues about personal information and how it can affect consumers. Furthermore, building confidence and security will be critical for central banks to ensure that this approach is widely adopted. 

Bank-Operated Model

Another alternative being investigated by central banks is the bank-operated model. This arrangement ensures that the central bank collaborates with commercial banks to distribute and maintain customer digital currency accounts.

Individuals would own CBDCs under this arrangement through their existing commercial bank accounts. Commercial banks would operate as a go-between for the customer and the central bank. This has many benefits but may also have some major downsides.

One of the primary benefits of this technique is that it makes use of existing baking infrastructure. CBDCs would be easier to integrate because commercial banks already have ties with their customers. Customers will be able to access CVDCs through their existing banking interfaces, making it extremely convenient and frictionless.

Another advantage of the bank-operated model is the possibility of a broader range of financial services. Commercial banks have a long history of providing a variety of financial products and services. This list includes anything from loans to payment methods and more. Banks can provide customers with even more financial services by including CBDCs into their operations. This is an excellent method to mix traditional finance with cutting-edge technology.

This strategy can also assist in addressing various customer service and account management issues. Commercial banks have extensive experience processing consumer data and offering good customer service. Another advantage that consumers can get from commercial banks’ support for CBDCs. If things do not go well for the customer, commercial banks are always ready to provide a seamless experience in order to solve their customers’ difficulties.

Nonetheless, this paradigm has limitations of its own. One of them is commercial banks’ reliance on CBDC distribution. This provides another layer that commercial banks are unfamiliar with and may limit their capabilities. 

Blockchain-Based Model

The Blockchain-based approach is the final model on our list. Central banks are considering their measures for the adoption of CBDCs. In this concept, the central bank uses blockchain technology to safely and securely issue and distribute digital currency transactions.

Blockchain technology is frequently linked to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. It is essentially a distributed ledger that is decentralized and records transactions across several computers. Checking and validating transactions, it ensures transparency, immutability, and security.

The greater transparency and security provided by the blockchain-based paradigm is one of its primary benefits. Because blockchain is decentralized, transactions are recorded and validated by several nodes in the network. This makes manipulating or tampering with the transaction history difficult. Because all transactions can be inspected and verified by authorized parties, this transparency increases trust and minimizes the risk of fraud.

Another advantage of the blockchain-based architecture is the possibility for greater financial transaction efficiency. Transactions can be settled almost instantly thanks to blockchain technology. This eliminates the need for intermediaries while also shortening the time and expense involved with traditional payments. This can result in faster and more efficient cross-border transactions, making cross-border trades more accessible to individuals.

Blockchain-Based Model CBDCs. Source: Consensys

However, the blockchain-based concept has its drawbacks. Scalability is one issue, as blockchain networks  can experience limitations while processing a huge amount of transactions. To address this, central banks must investigate technologies capable of handling large-scale transaction volumes. 

Another issue is transaction privacy and confidentiality. While blockchain provides transparency, some users may demand anonymity for specific transactions. Central banks must strike a balance between transparency and privacy while protecting sensitive financial information.

What is The Purpose of CBDCs?

Cryptocurrencies have garnered popularity due to their promise to increase financial inclusion and simplify financial services. They were once regarded as a type of medium of exchange. However, as previously said, cryptocurrencies have a slew of issues since they are decentralized.

The concept of digital money has been around for decades. Bitcoin merely altered the game by introducing the blockchain, a new decentralized ledger. 

To ensure that the government maintains control over digital money. Large banks just launch their own digital money. China, for example, has introduced the digital Yuan. This is now working well for them, and they want to increase their investment in the near future.

CBDCs are more than just a cash substitute. Governments regard them as programmable money that may be used to implement monetary policy and increase financial inclusion. CBDCs take several forms, influencing payment systems, monetary policy, and the stability of the economy. The race to create digital money has started, offering a new era of financial opportunities for everyone.

The Main Features of CBDCs

CBDCs have several characteristics that add to their overall excellence. First and foremost, they are convertible; they may be readily traded for ordinary money. They may be used as cash or converted into cash in a couple of minutes. 

Furthermore, they are accepted and available throughout the country. All stores should be able to process transactions for them, both online and offline. Another advantage is that they are inexpensive and secure. Transactions are free of charge, and they are all protected by an impenetrable system. The national bank must ensure that it is resilient and not vulnerable to failures and interruptions.

CBDCs must allow for the free flow of data across systems and must be adaptable to changing situations. They must also have a solid legal structure. Overall, CBDCs must be complete in every aspect imaginable. This may need a significant investment from the country creating them at first, but it will most certainly be advantageous for them in the long term. 

CBDC vs Cryptocurrency

CBDCs have most certainly been likened to cryptocurrencies, however, this is not the case. The primary distinction, as previously stated, is that CBDCs are governed by the central bank of the country issuing them. However, cryptocurrencies like Ethereum and Bitcoin are distributed on a completely decentralized ledger that is not controlled by any party.

Cryptocurrencies employ private blockchains that cannot be changed, but central banks use a type of blockchain that can be changed and managed by the appropriate individual. This essentially means that only authorized central bank workers have access to the blockchain. 

CBDCs vs Cryptocurrencies. Source: Nagarro

 Another common misunderstanding is that CBDCs are stablecoins. CBDCs, on the other hand, are the fiat money itself. Stablecoins, on the other hand, are linked to a certain currency, such as the US dollar. This means that a CBDCS will be the same as traditional cash.

CBDCs may only be utilized for making payments, and investing in them is strictly prohibited. Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, can be used for financial transactions and speculation.

Which Nations Utillze CBDCs?

There aren’t many countries that are willing to experiment with new financial technology. However, the Covid 19 pandemic has forced some countries to reconsider their views and begin investigating them. Furthermore, the growth of cryptocurrencies in recent years has had a significant impact on people’s interest in them. As a result, central banks will realize benefits from implementing such technologies.

As of present, around 81 countries have contemplated establishing a CBDC.  When we talk about CBDCs, one country that comes to mind is China. China has been experimenting with blockchain technology for a long time and is clearly ahead of the competition.

There are currently five countries that have officially decided to develop their own digital currency. The Bahamian Sand Dollar was the first CBDC to become accessible. Furthermore, countries such as Sweden and South Korea are in the process of developing a CBDC.

India is another country interested in experimenting with CBDCs. According to the Indian government, a digital rupee is expected to be issued in 2023. Furthermore, China is gradually introducing the digital Yuan across its provinces. They were able to test the digital yuan at the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics last year. The test, according to news accounts, was a success.

Furthermore, it has presented them with new strategies to deal with difficulties that they may cause. Overall, CBDCs appear to be an excellent solution that other countries should investigate. Time will tell if they are a big success and a shining example of future technology, or just another unsuccessful attempt.


  • CBDCs are digital currencies produced by central banks and linked to their respective country’s official currency.
  • CBDCs, also known as central bank digital currencies, are digital equivalents of government-issued currencies such as the US dollar and the Euro.
  • CBDCs, unlike cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, are not decentralized and are not entirely based on blockchain technology.
  • One of the primary benefits of CBDCs is that it makes use of existing baking infrastructure.
  • Central banks must strike a balance between transparency and privacy while protecting sensitive financial information.
  • Another advantage of the CBDC blockchain-based architecture is the possibility of greater financial transaction efficiency.
  • Commercial banks have extensive experience processing consumer data and offering good customer service so they may be a viable CBDC option.



About Ron Fetahu

I'm Ron, an experienced content writer who is passionate about creating captivating and impactful articles. I take pride in my writing style, as I can adapt it to suit various industries and topics. I also believe in the power of words to inform, inspire, and engage.

Related Posts